Starting point situation
Material well-being has increased in the world. Its uneven distribution is known to be the cause of wars and other conflicts. Global thinking and international cooperation are a mechanism for managing these crises. In management, the equality and integrity of the co-operatives are required.
Over the last decades, international co-operation has expanded from intergovernmental activity to increased interaction between social actors, whereby reality is perceived differently than in inter-state cooperation. Information technology and the Internet provide the tools for this interaction. The change has created new demands for information and its reliability.
The legacy of the Vienna Congress
The Congress in Vienna from 1814 to 1815 was the first international arrangement for peace and peace without arms. It created the basis for the interaction mechanisms in which States, on the basis of previous preparatory work, are looking for vis-a-vis problems in internationally identified and formulated problems.
In addition to multilateral meetings, a mechanism for bilateral negotiations has continued, which is a more efficient way of finding solutions to problems through a bilateral dialogue. In multilateral meetings, preparing agendas may be difficult because the issues related to these issues may differ, because of the lack of a common denominator, for linguistic reasons alone.
Helsinki Summit 2018
The meeting of US and Russian presidents was an exception to international practices regarding the preparation, the reliability of information and the transparency of operations. Certainly, there was a reason for it. This deviation from international practices is a matter for which the decision is made solely by the negotiating parties.
The leaders of both countries are primarily responsible for their own advocates in their home country. Throughout its history, the United States has emphasized openness in public affairs, while Russia has returned to the former Soviet Union's information practices and media monitoring, including media coverage, following a brief "Glasnost" period.
America's legacy to the world
Over 200 years of history, the United States has become the world's leading state and influence in the world. This is based on the constitution of the country. The Declaration of Independence was issued in 1776. The Declaration of Independence was followed by the constitutional process, which resulted in the adoption of the first constitution of the world in 1787 in Philadelphia, defining the rights and obligations of the state and individuals.
The Constitution defines the institutional structures of society, decision-making war and peace issues, and how to deal with relations with other states and international actors. The Constitution creates a framework for free enterprise, which must not be restricted by the state power, even though it is largely governed by this activity. Determining the teaching system and its content is not a federal task. States, civil society and industry are behind the activities of teaching, research and the information society and set their goals.
During its history, the United States has gone through its "university" war and peace issues. The proclamation of the war cannot be done by the President without Congress's decision, even though it can use military power to solve problems in the world. Through military technology and a large military budget, the country has become a de facto "military police" in the management of world crises. Many of the world's states do not accept it.
In international politics, the United States also has its own obligations. After the Second World War, where the International Union of Nations had to be replaced by a new World Organization (United Nations), the role of the United States was significant. It was already apparent during the war, and in particular at the San Francisco Conference in 1945, where a UN Charter was drawn up and a division of the organization's cost was agreed. Likewise, the Treaty establishing the North Atlantic Treaty "Washington Treaty 1948" was made in a way in which the United States strongly influenced its contents.
Russian heritage to the world
Russian history writing differs from the history of other countries in the world. It may not be consistent with other sources and views that have been written about the history of the country. Russian historical writing is not in symmetry with reality. Asymmetric history is one way of describing the past. However, it does not provide the basis for a mutual respect for the other nations and the rest of the world. Still, Russia was the largest state in the area and its natural resources. It has and still has the skills of mathematical sciences development in St. Petersburg the Great.
The current Russian education system, science and technology and innovation processes differ from the traditions of the EU and the new world, which emphasizes the equal opportunities of the individual in learning and social success in the world. In Kiev, Russia too, girls had a chance to attend school already in the 11th century. Russia's own conception is that Moscow and the Russian Orthodox Church are the followers of the Roman Empire, Byzantine traditions and Christian righteousness in Europe. The concept of the world's history differs in this respect from the Russian reality.
The development of Russian secular power dates back to the 13th century when Alexander Nevsky defeated crusaders on Lake Peipus. The Republic of Novgorod allied with the Mongols, when the current state and institutional development of Russia started, even though time is still depicted in the age of the Mongol yoke. The Russians took their own struggle against independence against Mongolian law and the Moscow Kremlin became a new center of Russianness since the 15th century. During the reign of Romanov, the Russian administration moved to St. Petersburg in the early 18th century, until the time of the Soviet times it was again in Moscow.
Petersburg’s open window to Europe was not enough for internal renewal. By contrast, the 19th century Marxist social theories gained foothold in Russia. Between 1917 and 1921, there was a civil war that resulted in the birth of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1921-1991). The SNTL consisted of 15 states / territories belonging to the Russian Empire. The Soviet Union was abolished by the President of the country on 25 December 1991. In the post-Soviet evolution (1992-2000) there were issues that, in the face of increasing transparency, require re-evaluation and discussion of possible remedies among all those involved.
Differences and similarities between great powers
The United States and Russia differ greatly from their core values and functionalities. So also, the presidents of the country. The first significant difference in social reality is related to the time vision. Where US citizens live in the "here and now" reality, the Russians live differently in a prominent timeliness. For the rest of its existence, since the 13th century, the contemporary reality of Russian society is emphasized in the past. In the Soviet years, the social reality of the country got the future dimension - the past and the future were then more important to people than this moment.
The second issue, where these two state structures differ, is related to the "pressure of uniformity".
Over the centuries, the Russian state has formed over 100 different ethnic groups with their own communal history and their own language. For both history and industrialization, the integration of the various nationalities in the Russian region was based on the leadership of the true-Russian people in the region since the 15th century, with the leadership of Moscow. The birth history of the United States and the development of the leading state have been the result of both migration / migration and a new kind of governmental thinking.
The same applies to both leaders of both major powers to use force policy in internal affairs and in international co-operation. Both states are nuclear powers that know both the destructive power of nuclear weapons and the impossibility of using them in international crises. US President Barak Obama's visit to Hiroshima on the anniversary of the bombing is a major gesture to apologize for the drowning state of the bomb to the people of the drop-off. Such a message about the stupidity of war is a sign of strong leadership.
Problem-solving and management have their own step-by-step coordination mechanism. The 16th World Summit of 2018 in Helsinki was the first meeting of the Coordination Mechanism between the Presidents. Problems must first be identified and shaped to find a common language to solve them. After that step, other things can be easily agreed upon.
The problem with the Helsinki Presidents' meeting was the strong interest of both participants in finding a sort of solution explicitly on a personal level. The way in which the two presidents manage their country deviates from the normal compliance with the principle of legality when they act as heads of state in the handling of their state affairs.
Major Relationships are not managed by starting a personal interest even though it is a necessary prerequisite for institutional affairs. In Helsinki, almost all of the issues related to the meeting acted as a hint of external visibility at the expense of content. If the Vienna Congress was called a "dancing congress", the meeting in Helsinki could be called "visible meeting".
Neither party had a detailed public agenda prepared in proportion to the broader bilateral and multilateral context, such as the Global Sustainability Program (SDG). Heads of State of the United States, Russia and other countries have been doing global development programs and initiatives. The president of the United States, with his tweens, can handle all kinds of things. Twins are growing in social media than plastic waste in the oceans. President-level people should be able to speak with silence.
Russia also has constitutional democracy under its constitution. Indeed, its guiding influence on the decisions of the Russian President is very questionable compared to the constitution adopted by the United States in Philadelphia in 1787, which was the basis for later constitutional rule in Europe, which was among the forbidden "books" in Russia in the 19th century as well as during the Soviet Union without real implementation.
The principle of legality and the functioning of the constitution in the internal and international activities of different countries are the starting point and the necessary condition for all social activities. That is why it is important that these old principles and the starting points of current activity are also looked at from new perspectives. Even though things are said to be, it does not stop looking at the things that have happened with new criteria.
Changes within the Soviet Union
During the Cold War, things were predictable on both sides, which was hoped to increase in the post-1975 world. The occupation of the Soviet Afghanistan was triggered by stricter export restrictions on dual-use technology to the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Covenant countries since 1979. The export licenses were not processed for several years, after which cautiously came back to the practice of the late 1970s, whereby export licenses were again granted as a substitute for severe sanctions.
The introduction of business management and data processing systems in the industrialized countries of the 1960s, which brought the Western countries relatively advantageous competition in the Soviet-led and CMEA-centric planned economy. Already in the 1980s, the Soviet Union became aware of societal problems and the consequences of slow technological development on the national economy. After the mid-1990s, economic reforms and a new operating environment for the Soviet business sector began.
The second half of the 1980s was the golden age of change and renewal of the Soviet system. In autumn 1987, special licensing procedures for the export of conventional commercial computer hardware and software were discontinued. The Soviet Union began commercial computer technology with a global license such as Western European countries. The restrictions were abolished because the so-called " On the basis of the Foreign Availability section, the Soviet Union had the same technology that was also obtained from third-party sources. There were no longer grounds for trade restrictions.
In the late 1980s, leading Western computer companies started investing in marketing organizations in the Soviet Union in the same way they had done in other countries. In the process of social and economic restructuring, the Soviet Union also explored different options for reforming its economy. The alternatives were NEP-time conspiracy models in which state industrial property would have been left to state ownership, which could be freely utilized on the basis of private interests through various licensing arrangements.
Following the abolition of the Soviet Union, Western governments, particularly England, were promoting the privatization program as a method of Russian and economic reform in the social and business sectors of society, based on positive experiences in England, in reforming their own economy. Other countries and international intergovernmental assistance programs were also associated with this privatization and a functioning social sector in the 1992 joint transition program in Russia and the former Soviet Union.
Options for the future
The world is unlikely to change and become better and more manageable through bilateral and multilateral public headquarters meetings. Instead, there is a need for multi-layered public-private partnerships and dialogue. Who needs centralized reform programs like the Soviet system. Human life and the state of the environment can be renewed with a much lighter structure and with the recipient countries' own terms.
The Soviet transition economy program, involving Western governments and international donors, should provide a comprehensive ex-post assessment to identify the impact of the former Soviet aid programs on the social development of Russia and the other Soviet states: income distribution, other social development, public administration development, and environmental issues and their management under new circumstances.
It is important that international cooperation and issues related to global change are reflected in national and international media. However, it must not be an endless media activity because of media appearances. Mass media must have room for a healthy mind especially in environmental matters and other issues related to global change.
© Heikki K. Auvinen, 2018, All rights reserved.