This is the orginal text posted in Finnish and English 17 March 2013. It generated such a feedback reaction, that I began to study Russian history in more dept. The metaphor comprises five odysseys, because present president's focus on Russian history is so dominant ih his policies and justification of the present and future poltics of the country. Lot of study work has been done, but only one re-written odyssey (Conquest of Siberia) has been posted. Numerous black holes have come up during the study phase together with the on-going Ukrainian crisis.
Four Odysseys done by Russia and Russianness (Original text 17.March 2013)
Nations of the basic types of peoples
Nations can be grouped into four broad categories. There are steppe peoples, forest peoples, mountain peoples and the peoples of the water, depending on how people have put their lives in accordance with the natural conditions. Russianness is a plain culture with forest and steppe dimensions in it. In addition, social science and historical research for grouping of nations created states also have their way of managing that. There are kingdoms, republics, and democratic republics and various dictatorships.
Altai early home to the world
In the Altai home of branch of hominids all were members of one big family, until the population exceeded carrying capacity of nature and part of the population was forced to leave to find a new living environment somewhere else. In the beginning of time there was plenty of space. Now, due to multiplication of population, the space where man and his created human communities could live in is much scarce. So, the existing space is used more efficiently.
Choice between Forest and Steppe
The Russian Federation consists of the people, made up of about 160 ethnic groups. Almost a hundred different languages are spoken in Russia. Both the Finns and the Russians are in the forest peoples, who are accustomed to live in harmony with the natural surroundings when living in the same areas in the Urals first home after moving from the Altai home. Lived together, the space was enough for both. Rivers and places were given the names that were either in Finnish or in Russian, which are both used and continue to be used.
The First Odyssey to Steppes
The Russians wanted the extra space and began to expand their living space to the neighborhood steppes. There, they were met with the people and the nations that were technologically and in social development terms more advanced than in standard of living than the Russians used to live in forest zone. Amongst steppe peoples and within the culture created by them, a negative attitude started to develop toward the Russians, as well as there were regarded subordinate to steppe peoples. In addition to agricultural and trading knowledge, also the technology of war and mobility in war making were better managed amongst the steppe peoples.
Hit or Become Beaten
Russian society had developed and focused its energies on the basis of their own preferences. Language and mental development, it had a leading role in the quantification of forest peoples. Its language relatives spread out over a large area to the west and began to diverge in terms of language and mind. There was a need for extra power to eliminate the effect of the steppe peoples.
As in the old days soldiers were recruited into army amongst the population, Russia began to insert smaller nationalities to their own system. Also, the Russians made up the Republic of Novgorod, which was in the western part of the forest zone of present Russia, became annexed by force Moscow-centered Russians principalities. Also, the steppe peoples soon learned to know the equal military force possessed by the northern regions’ people.
Siberian and Alaskan conquest
History has shown how States are born and die. Nothing lasts forever, not only gardening, a Chinese own strong harmony-based thinking meant taking care of the environment. Also, China's own economic policy in recent decades with homework of your garden are kept clean are left to be done.
It is unreasonable to blame the Russians exclusively for the use of military force in the new regions into the Russian Empire. Listening to the other party does not, however, been a key subject in the Russian educational system. However, Russia received the right of possession of Siberia and Alaska areas in a way that was less bloody than the Western European settlers, the conquest of the Americas.
Development of Cultures
When a person develops himself and culture created by himself, he has to pay attention to two things: affairs outside him/herself and inside him/herself, mind to these issues. Mankind's education systems and institutions in the development of information on technological development and environmental issues have been of great importance. The technology enables a man has tried to subjugate the surrounding nature for its own use.
Another important dimension in development of cultures is development of the human mind and the development of intellectual capacity. The more the mind, learning and advanced universal human values has been invested, the more is also reflected in the results in technology sector and economic well-being. Ability of the interaction between individual and society is the major indicator of this development.
Universal Human Rights
The Renaissance, expeditions, big inventions and lighting philosophy as a result the late 1700's in Western Europe had been born a new way of thinking, which for the first time in the history of the world's human life value. Every individual is unique and has its mere existence, already a valuable thing. The French Revolution and the U.S. Constitution are the milestones in the history of mankind.
Although the revolutions tend to always eat their children, these things were included in the modern world to be born again and again. The historical development of ideas of the French Revolution and the ideas spread to the requirements of the 1800s all over the world. They also received new shapes and new dimensions 1800s the state philosophy in other European countries and in the European philosophical thinking (Hegel, Kant, Marx and Engels).
Decembrist Revolt 1825
Russia has had most of his time secluded from the rest of Europe. It does not have an internal or external interaction tradition way of the development of society in its portfolio. Napoleonic Wars shocked the whole of Europe. As a result, Russia's borders opened in the direction that the Russian troops marched 1815 into Paris and offenses on calming the situation in Europe.
At the same time, Russian troops marched through Europe, the military leadership and the soldiers saw what life was happy situation in Europe, where the above-described liberal ideas of the Enlightenment were widespread. A vision of deep emotional impact on people's minds: Why do your things is so deplorable condition? Although young people in Europe that were officers’ rebellion failed, it seemed the end of 1700s the large political and social upheavals’ ideas were docking in Russia.
Two Types of Liability
The late 1700's created alongside the universal human rights also began to develop a new kind of human responsibilities. Today, it is understood that humans and human society, and there are two responsibilities at the individual level and at global level, the responsibility: environmental and social responsibility in the above-cultural development.
Although both the liability arose after World War II in the world, was created for those based in the Age of Enlightenment and large political and social upheavals’ ideas of 1800 - century industrial development, the basic assumptions proved to be wrong and the penalties were borne by future generations a century later. In Russia, social responsibility was realized during the socialism experiment very well, perhaps too well. Environmental protection, while the Russians in relation to nature has been a lot of catching up to do, especially when during the Soviet Union the country simply ignored the environmental protection.
Odyssey to Central Asia
In 1814, began in Central Asia as "the great game" well-known history of the phase in which the parties were the Russian Empire and the entire Asian colonial aspiring United Kingdom. Both of them had their own interests in this matter. Russia had already established enlargement in Siberia. Russia annexed Caucasus territories from the early 1800s onwards. In 1816, Russia joined Azerbaijan and its capital Baku, which soon became the world's oil industry center. Baku existence contributed to industrialization and technological know-how in other parts of Russia.
The 1860s, Russia began a systematic program east of the Caspian Sea areas to control. Krasnovodsk established a beachhead east bank. By the year 1876 by the Russian Federation had taken control of most of the Central Asian regions except for Turkmenistan. In 1884, the Russians conquered the main cities of Turkmenistan Merv city, followed by Russia's southern border was confirmed in the UK (Persian territories) and the Russian border agreement.
Odyssey ended in 1991, when the Soviet Union collapsed and the five Central Asian former Soviet Republics became independent. Russia continues to give rise to the presence of very mixed emotions in Central Asia. Area represents a cultural tradition in which people's own opinion; they were more advanced than the Russians experienced successive waves of conquerors. Lack of dialogic mechanisms exacerbated relations between the population groups during the Tsarist and Soviet eras. As well as in Russia should be evaluated the Mongol administration time for 1230 - 1480 in a new way, but also in Central Asia, people should evaluate this time also from the perspective of what they have got themselves Russian and Soviet eras.
Odyssey to human mind
The most complex issue that Russia has never been taken, is a socialist social system, which was valid for 1917 - 1991 period. It is a unique thing in the history of the world in the industrial production of the society. The reasons and objectives for transition to socialist regime is the subject of numerous books and debated without a pint of beer and beer pints throughout the world. It is also not intended to analyze how the latter option if you would be a new opportunity to live that time again.
As with the social values, in the structure of the mind is also something constant and equitable. Socialism, equality objectives and the realization of justice are universal values that generation upon generations to fascinate people. Both Western and Russian people learned concepts of right and wrong from fairy tales and stories. Masters for Western countries and currently also in Russia on these issues are known a Danish storyteller HC Andersen and for Russian children, a writer Pavel Bazhov, who published a collection of the old Russian fairy tales, "Stories of the Ural Mountains,".
Socialism talked about things in a different way than they were in reality. Until the late 1980s, in the name of glasnost began to talk openly about things began to even admit mistakes, Vladimir Vysotsky poems began to read in a new way. In 1991 street rods filled with the last of October 1917 revolution anniversary celebrations of the people who already spoke out loud that the emperor had no clothes anymore. December 25, 1991 Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic ceased to be a "Soviet Republic" and "socialist" and 26 December 1991 the Upper Chamber of the USSR Supreme Council approved the initiative of Mikhail Gorbachev's declaration of "the abolition of the Soviet Union."
Socialism after the options
In 1991, the Soviet Union dissolved needed outside help to manage change. Now that great change is taken for reservations. Russia went through its economic shock therapy, led by foreign-funded and technical assistance programs, which were implemented in the government contribution. Russia began in 1991 privatization programme through privatizing apartments, continued from 1992 to 1994 privatizing civil industry companies by means of a coupon system. In the third stage, the social sector has been reformed by creating new private sector service capacity.
The Russians also saw themselves in the 1990s the consequences and impact of reforms on social development. Also, it was debated as an alternative for privatization to find out whether to proceed in the reform through approach like proceeded in the NEP-era with concession rights to foreign companies. NEP-years (1921 - 1929) of more than 100 foreign companies had the rights for the organization of production in different sectors of the Soviet Union. In this manner, the knowledge component was built in the country's industrialization.
Russia's civil industry rapid privatization generated also a by-result in income inequality and headed for the citizens the use of funds for consumption. It is understandable, as living standards with the West was so striking. The transition to the market economy system, the "cosmos" pen-drawn plans and knowledge of the people lost their meaning. Most of the experts in the old system worked well educated people appeared on the streets and kiosks to sell tobacco, chocolate bars, socks, and even their lives to keep the pornographic magazines. Success shock treatment did not support human rights and democracy issues related to social dialogue in society called for by the western countries in emerging new Russia.
Changes in the world economy
Russia has long been one of the major industrial countries in the world. Own path vanguard of Russia has not been able to carry out the industrial potential of Russia is on the basis of their own knowledge. Russia has become the world’s most highly trained of raw materials and energy export earnings recipient of a living economy, which is about 80 per cent of the country's total export value.
Since the Second World War, the world economy developed know-how and trade in services. Immaterial things and intellectual rights have become the main content of productive economies, representing about 70 per cent provision of the gross domestic product. Individual and business know-how, and respect for the protection of the rights are becoming as issues are of the same order of magnitude as the other fixed assets’ role in society. Without effective protection skills are no new innovations, new economic activities.
During nearly two hundred years of industrialization the carrying capacity of the environment being tested, as well as the climate that access to fresh water Bothe these things offer to Russian technological knowledge a new opportunity to be involved in creating new technological solutions to the world. The globe’s water problem-solving should be based on the large water cycle in nature of liquid, gaseous and solid state exploitation in solving environmental problems. Russia has significant technological competence in solving the problem of water in the world.
Odyssey to the future
Man can return to somewhere when he first went on somewhere, and have been there for a while before returning. To leave for the future and draw conclusions right here and right now can take place only in the mind of man. Russia and Russianness have undergone a complex catharsis process ballast of its past. It is therefore of paramount importance that both the Russian and the Russian leadership are capable of dialogue, which has been a problem throughout history.
In the future, Russia will be teaming up in their own interests and priorities differently with different countries and groups of countries. It has already taken place some kind of change in internal way of thinking in Russia. Importance of the use of force and the magnitude of the country in the future is not going to be the same significance as in the past. Critical factors in the formation of the future become knowledge-based intangible resources and cultural traditions, which future generations will draw inspiration from the building.
Elected leadership and the citizens must be considered carefully, "among whom Russia stands" in the future. In recent years, Russia has been involved in creating the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), economic co-operation. Does the foreseeable co-operation results will meet with the long-term goals and the investments made in the past the Russian national base of technological knowledge.
Or whether the idea of membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization option that should be explored and discussed within the country as one of the options for the future. Already in 1954, the Soviet Union took the initiative to join NATO. But then, in the 1950s the situation in the world was different than it is now, and in all likelihood will also be in the future.
There is no Shortage of Challenges
This script creates perhaps more questions than it provides answers to conventional questions in the minds of people about Russia and Russianness. One of the objectives for writing this paper is to provide new perspectives to the Russians and create a debate in Russia itself. In storytelling in the world, one must remember to keep in mind that the end of the story leads to the last page of the book. This also will happen to Russia and Russian culture change – it has three parts: the beginning, middle and end, which all of them are in a continuous changing process. A ready script does not exist.
© Heikki K. Auvinen, 2013