Asymmetric Russian History

Asymmetric Russian History - Introduction to Asymmetry in Historiography

QA Tool for Historiography - Systemic scheme about quality control in history studies

 

Asymmetric Russian History


Symmetry is known as a phenomenon in nature. It is the opposite of asymmetry. Symmetry does not exist without dualism, which is the condition for symmetry and asymmetry. Dualism or duality is involved in many things. However, this website is not part of the ontology and semantics lesson. It just determines premises of the concepts below asymmetric historiography.

Russia has a history, as well as written and oral tradition. In structuring such a history, the material should be classified content-wise into mutually exclusive categories providing a reliable picture of things (reliability), about the past / recent history in an understandable way (validity), things have to be verifiable and measurable, as well as serving as a predictable basis for future advances.

When there is a different standings between the parties about common positioning, it has resulted often in war or use of power settlement. History of Russia, like in other countries, has been a history of wars and their description. In the past, wars were motivated by: land ownership and management, language and its role in other languages, and to defend and /promote his concept of deity/religion (holiness).

The concept of symmetry,

The symmetry-asymmetry –concepts are known in many areas of life. Symmetry means symmetric balance, integration of the various components within a substance. In a broader sense, symmetry can mean harmony and internal coherence and balance.  A precise mathematical sense of symmetry means an entity in different parts of the similarities that can be demonstrated in a formal system, such as geometry or physics. The word symmetry is due to the Greek words συμμετρεῖν (symmetry), which means symmetry.

The concept of asymmetry

Asymmetry, as a complementary contrast to symmetry in known in numerous fields of science world: theology, biology, physics, physiology, psychology, economics, systems theory, and information science, military science, aesthetics and art history, mathematics and geometry.

Asymmetrical warfare means of warfare between two unequal military resources enemies. In modern military thinking asymmetric warfare also means situations where both parties use a variety of strategies, such as the current crisis in Ukraine. Russia even deny it’s to do with it, which makes the problem difficult to solve.

Asymmetric information in economics refers to a situation in which the economic activities related to the event one party has more information than the other. Typically, the product seller has more information than the buyer of the product. Also, the opposite situation is possible. Asymmetric information is a source of market disruption. These things are often analysed by means of game theory.

People find in many social interaction situations a symmetric substance with a built-in hidden asymmetric dimension presence in the situation through estimates of reciprocity, empathy, apology, dialogue, respect, justice and revenge. Symmetrical means of interaction send a message "we are all the same", while the controlled asymmetric interaction means send a message, "I am special, better than you." Equal and reciprocal human relations are based on symmetry, while asymmetry is involved in relations based on dominance.

Information and data concepts

Information is the order, which can be connected to any interpretation. Thus the television picture has information, but the noise “snow” does not exists, since there is no order. This is a subset of the information, which relates to the semantics (meanings); by contrast, in general information theory to sequence of symbols of information which does not need to interpret (?).

Human knowledge is an important difference can be made between physical and mental knowledge. Physical information is easily replicable physical records of the information, for example, on paper, on the computer hard disk drive, CD-ROM or as set in stone as an image or writing.

Mental information is information about the human mind (psyche). Mental information such as memories, perceptions, knowledge, understanding and wisdom. That, too, is "to duplicate" the first "transfer" of the mind, the physical data of the recording format, such as by writing books, recording speech. But the human mind, we are unable to amplify and transfer. It moves through the cultural heritage from generation to generation.

Physical and mental information is also responsible for the overall external (explicit) and quiet (tacit) knowledge gap.  Physical information is external, accurate, easy to share and mental knowledge of internal, quiet and difficult to share. Mental knowledge is a human individual, his interpretation of the background-dependent information. Physical information changes, interpreted also as a mental knowledge, that is the physical information is always mental, individual interpretation.

The third and increasingly important data classification is the technical information and human knowledge. PCs will provide an even more human-manipulated information, while a man cannot at this time to grow their own information processing ability very much. (Source: Wikipedia).

Yet another possibility is that when symmetries become too complex and challenging, human mind tends to "tune them off", and they are still interpreted in another way through putting them in a new category: the noise, which does not contain any useful information.

Historiography and research of the past

Historiography is a discipline of science is primarily based on written sources in researching the mankind’s past. Thus, the historical time commences from the discovery of writing. Time before writing skills are referred to as the pre-historic period. Amongst pre-historic time research explorations the most important discipline is the science of archeology.

Church History is a sub-area of Theology, which uses historical research methods. Thus it is not a separate discipline, but a discipline related to Theology. Church History, you can find out how the church has evolved and what kind of Christian thinking has been at different times. The first Christian historiography can be considered in the Gospels, although they are not the actual historical documents. The first historiographic document of the church can be seen as Acts of the Apostles.

Actual church history writing began only a few hundred years after the beginning of CE. The writing of history began more widely, and it became more of a necessity, when Christianity began to establish status and became part of the Roman Empire society. In the Middle Ages secular History followed the ecclesiastical historiography precedent. History was based on the Bible, who told the world both on the early times as well as the end of the world. After the Reformation, the Church's history began to be interpreted in a new way, in particular by the Protestant camp.

In the Middle Ages and Renaissance period Gothicism was the predominant form of historiography in Europe. Its aim was to show that the people descended from the Biblical position on these. This was then the world's image of the highest reputation in the word that the people could receive. The Enlightenment and the source of the criticism of the Gothic theories popularity began to subside. A kind of counter-history emerged amongst the common people and directed historical chronicles. The commons chronicles did not tell about the ancient times with glory, but on wars, disease, hunger and other suffering. These Gothic chronicles were the private property of the nobility and the intelligentsia.

The Annales School is born in France and around the world to spread historiography school, which is strongly influenced by the history of writing in the West throughout the 1900's. School of thought known as the sociology of scientific methods, especially the inclusion of the history of research by saying that the history of the study had to take into account all the elements of society. Sociological research methods were adopted in addition influenced by, among other things, psychology.

With the Annales School can also be noted from the very core of anthropology ancillary sciences research. Similarly, a large study of civilizations, which can also be called cultural history, is one of the most broadly defined by the current generation of operating range. The strongest opposition to the Annales School approach were the researchers belonging to Marxist research schools. They considered that the Annales School suffered from lack of a comprehensive social theory.

Present Methodological Guidelines

Extract from history research guidelines for educational science post-graduate students in Helsinki University by PhD Ritva Koskennurmi-Sivonen shows a summary of research methodology emphasize focusing on researcher's contacts/discussion (first-hand) sources, contemporary and research literature, which results in the interpretation of past events. From the results point of view, the study should clearly made distinction between the two levels of history research:

History can be a time past events (History events).
History can be a report of past events (History narrative).

Historical research describes and interprets the past, either synchronously (temporal-cross-sectional-sections) or diachronically (in longitudinal section). The study may also apply to the length of time diachronically but to take on some of the investigated phenomenon related to events turning points closer examination synchronously.

History researcher's method has been used to call “source-critical method”, therefore, that reasoning is largely based on different sources of critical analysis and comparison. Source criticism itself is non-illustrative and non-suitable term, therefore, that all researchers must be source-critical in the sense that they should be selective with their (literacy) sources anyhow.

On the other hand, the source-criticism has come to be regarded as a rigid expression for how the historian interprets the sources. Traditionally has been talked about for two types of source criticism: External source of criticism refers to the proper assessment of whether the source is genuine and it really is related to the phenomenon under scrutiny? Built-in source criticism in turn means the assessment, if the source is genuine, whether it is precise and relevant, and what it gets out of it.


These methodological tools and points of these pages have been used in describing things for the website through incorporating Russian history and the past centuries/recent times, as described in the official historiography of Russia, as well as with more interpretations through the Asymmetric History and Five Odysseys drafting during the past two years.

 

 

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