Sample Texts and Essays on Russia and Russianness 2012 – 2014
How European Outermost Pig of Litter Became the Biggest One?
Controlled coordination of different interests is the core issue in the development of human societies. When recognizing the rights of individuals with their own limited existence, there is also a learning curve in communal thinking to ensure the continuity of their own interests, as well as the realization of common interests for the benefit of both.
Space, Movement and Time in Europe
Current population setting is a result of the movement of people and be connected with land. Not solely. Through the connection with land while creating the national identity, language, mind, beliefs and techno-economic culture are becoming increasingly more important. The individual is often part of a larger entity. Alongside the individual's reality is also a collective consciousness, perception of history.
The Contemporary view of state concept is that a state cannot exist without its territory. In 1800-century philosophy, ideals and understanding the role of movement emerged in the consciousness of humanity. This strengthening idealistic non-material layer of State, is known as dialogue (dialogic process) process in global social awareness building.
The dialogue takes place in the moment, in our minds. It can also be done with the past. Time proceeds in cycles, either linearly or, if linear, then the hourglass, clocks and calendars are needed to measure it. The mind of man can measure progress, whether remained in place and going backwards. Order of the past, present and future has been unchanged since Aristotle's time. Their role, however, varied.
Russia and Russianness Development
The Russian state might scare the outsiders due to enormous investments in military power. There are lots of reasons for Russians to justify doing so both in historical times, as well as in a moment in the Middle Ages when emerging Russia and Russianness had a limited space. Russians' own self-concept is very different from external perceptions of them. Is Russia the heir of the Roman Empire is an issue where there are divergent views. There is consensus that the Russians are a nation that is in Europe.
The current Russia and the preceding Russian principalities before being connected to the Moscow regime under the 1400 - and 1500 centuries created the Russian culture in Northern/Eastern regions of Europe. Its neighbours to the south were in Turkish steppe nations with advanced farming culture, commerce with outsiders (Silk Road), mobility (horses and military technology, which on the basis of knowledge of π, which enabled to make a bike), management (khan system = combined forces against the external enemy) and monocultures unified by Islamic religion with otherwise very multi-ethnic people in communities in the region. In the Middle ages it was the most vital culture in the world.
Moscow and the current European part of Russia were the areas under the administration of the Volga region Kypchaks Khanate (Golden Horde) belonging to the Mongolian Empire. Russians own historiography sees this as a period of "Tatar yoke" era, Tatars being allied with the Mongols. Historiography of that time has never been made questionable in Russia. That period of time is considered as paralysing in the Russian state development. In other affected countries by Mongol regime that time is currently assessed also from other premises.
The Problematic Modern Times Development
Russia passed through both his own Renaissance and Dark Ages after release from the Golden Horde's administration. Creation of unified Russian administration happened in a manner that resembled the early Mongol expansion methods. Moscow, the Russians saw it justified, because Russia is the heir of Rome and the Eastern Roman Empire. This role and view was sealed by the marriage of Ivan III with the last Byzantine emperor's niece in 1472. Raw materials and natural resources at that time had not the same significance to the community living as they have today.
Russians have still the perception that these peoples' connection with Russia was and is good to their own interests. Some of the nations connected with Russia in the historical existence, had already developed their own language, which had no role in the development of the mind and consciousness of nation. Russian leadership's recent speeches, taking into account, Russianness is still not able to deal with its own history from the perspective of the other peoples. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has not been able to adopt the dialogue approach in internal or external relations at it has been the case in other parts of the world.
Different Point of View due to Perspective Error
In modern history resulting in the Renaissance, large expeditions, the basic laws of physics and as a result of large discoveries the successors of the Roman Empire in Western and Central Europe launched a new kind of thinking of governance and co-existence individualism and statehood. As a result, importance of the church and religion has decreased in society.
At the same time, Russia has continued and still continues to live in the old reality. No support to dialogue. In Russia, the emperor's power and wisdom were directly from God. Scientific activities in Russia were lagged. The country's first scientific institution (the Imperial Academy of Sciences) was established in 1724 and the first university in 1755 in Moscow. In the western countries the scientific thinking, enlightenment and social development was started from almost a hundred years earlier. Science has not been able to increase dialogic capability of Russian culture. Still, Russian great achievements in belles-letters and arts are recognised worldwide. .
The Role of Space with the State
The existence of the Russian state and decision-making can be viewed by means of emergence of two different kinds of state. Russia and Israel are very different in terms of size. Both of them results in given promise. The case of Israel's promise concerning the land of Israel, the people can inhabit.
Although since the year 70 jewry has been on exile, the Jews did not lose their identity, neither being aware of their own country. At the second part of the 1800s was born in the Zionist movement among the Jews. “Establishment of State project” was created in Basel in 1897. The Jewish community started to buy the old territory of Israel, settlers started to move to those regions. The State of Israel was proclaimed on 14 May 1948, and the next day began the first war with the surrounding neighbours. Wars have been going on to this day.
Within Russia has been a wide range of reckonings. Both tsarist Russia and the Soviet Union itself annexed large geographical areas. By the official historiography, annexation has been made on a voluntary basis. It is understood that the language and development of the mind have not played a role. Also, the story telling on the emergence of the Soviet Union followed the same formula. People stopped to believe in the story in 1991. Where is the kind of story about the origin of Russia, where people believe it themselves and tell it as their own story, such as the Jews.
Russianness outside Russia
The whole history of the Russia emphasizes to speak about strong Russian state. Is there any power, which could be stronger than Russian armed forces? The role of religion in Russian society has changed over the centuries. Religion has been called up for help. For individuals religion provides an in-depth experience. It has created a new form of religious mysticism and aesthetic experience even for non-religious people.
Russians are creative and mathematically talented people. Russians have cultural traditions, which can furnish them with energy even outside of Russia. Siberia is in Russia's regional expansion in the history a very special area, whereas Russianness spread to Siberian ethnic minority regions by means commerce and human interaction. Only in the second and third wave appeared the army and the church in new territory. Elsewhere in the annexed regions the marching order has always been: the army, the church and the merchants.
Russian scientific tradition emphasizes natural science and math skills. Maybe litter outermost position was not warm enough and required more attention on management of external conditions to survive. Russian scientific and technological knowledge has importance for the whole mankind.
Head of State of the Nation Speech 2012
President Vladimir Putin had a recent speech, which assessed the state of the nation. From the external point of view, there were many good and bad things. In Russia, there are only three problems: a state identity, lack of internal and external dialogue relations. When the first problem resolves, it resolves the rest two as well. There are no other problems. .
It is not a task of an outsider to write reviews of Vladimir Putin’s state-of-the-nation address. However, it should be noted that such a speech by President does his people and nation a disservice in developing Russia. He messes up his own youth years’ reality perceptions with closing eyes for reality today and for the future. .
Still, the President has not made his 1991 homework of reading ideas and content of changes in 1800/1900 centuries in the world. He has not been either one of those activists in his youth years who acquired the data about surrounding world, which has not been filtered by the Russian nationalistic or Marxists filters.
What kind of Russia in the Future?
Russian cultural, technological and artistic skills are the most valuable assets of the Russian nation. The two things are more important for Russia and Russian culture for the future development of its non-adherence to the centuries-old tradition of culture, which emphasizes fulfilment their own values through managing the physical geographic space.
It is almost a paradox that the current Russian leadership sees the increased dialogue between people and nations as interference in Russia's internal affairs. Or is it a reflection that persons in the nation's leadership feel guilty for not being able to merging the interests and benefits of individuals and society in Russia due to their exceptional interest in the physical layer development in history.
Russia should be able to reform itself, find its place in the development of dialogic approach. Russia cannot be at the same time a great power with science and knowledge achievements and get major incomes in its national economy from producing and exporting raw material and energy. Russia should adopt more self-determination and mutual cooperation in relations with other nations.
© Heikki K. Auvinen, 2013
Four Odysseys Done by Russia and Russianness
Nations of the basic types of peoples
Nations can be grouped into four broad categories. There are steppe peoples, forest peoples, mountain peoples and the peoples of the water, depending on how people have put their lives in accordance with the natural conditions. Russianness is a plain culture with forest and steppe dimensions in it. In addition, social science and historical research for grouping of nations created states also have their way of managing that. There are kingdoms, republics, and democratic republics and various dictatorships.
Altai early home to the world
In the Altai home of branch of hominids all were members of one big family, until the population exceeded carrying capacity of nature and part of the population was forced to leave to find a new living environment somewhere else. In the beginning of time there was plenty of space. Now, due to multiplication of population, the space where man and his created human communities could live in is much scarce. So, the existing space is used more efficiently.
Choice between Forest and Steppe
The Russian Federation consists of the people, made up of about 160 ethnic groups. Almost a hundred different languages are spoken in Russia. Both the Finns and the Russians are in the forest peoples, who are accustomed to live in harmony with the natural surroundings when living in the same areas in the Urals first home after moving from the Altai home. Lived together, the space was enough for both. Rivers and places were given the names that were either in Finnish or in Russian, which are both used and continue to be used.
The First Odyssey to Steppes
The Russians wanted the extra space and began to expand their living space to the neighborhood steppes. There, they were met with the people and the nations that were technologically and in social development terms more advanced than in standard of living than the Russians used to live in forest zone. Amongst steppe peoples and within the culture created by them, a negative attitude started to develop toward the Russians, as well as there were regarded subordinate to steppe peoples. In addition to agricultural and trading knowledge, also the technology of war and mobility in war making were better managed amongst the steppe peoples.
Hit or Become Beaten
Russian society had developed and focused its energies on the basis of their own preferences. Language and mental development, it had a leading role in the quantification of forest peoples. Its language relatives spread out over a large area to the west and began to diverge in terms of language and mind. There was a need for extra power to eliminate the effect of the steppe peoples.
As in the old days soldiers were recruited into army amongst the population, Russia began to insert smaller nationalities to their own system. Also, the Russians made up the Republic of Novgorod, which was in the western part of the forest zone of present Russia, became annexed by force Moscow-centered Russians principalities. Also, the steppe peoples soon learned to know the equal military force possessed by the northern regions’ people.
Siberian and Alaskan conquest
History has shown how States are born and die. Nothing lasts forever, not only gardening, a Chinese own strong harmony-based thinking meant taking care of the environment. Also, China's own economic policy in recent decades with homework of your garden are kept clean are left to be done.
It is unreasonable to blame the Russians exclusively for the use of military force in the new regions into the Russian Empire. Listening to the other party does not, however, been a key subject in the Russian educational system. However, Russia received the right of possession of Siberia and Alaska areas in a way that was less bloody than the Western European settlers, the conquest of the Americas.
Development of Cultures
When a person develops himself and culture created by himself, he has to pay attention to two things: affairs outside him/herself and inside him/herself, mind to these issues. Mankind's education systems and institutions in the development of information on technological development and environmental issues have been of great importance. The technology enables a man has tried to subjugate the surrounding nature for its own use.
Another important dimension in development of cultures is development of the human mind and the development of intellectual capacity. The more the mind, learning and advanced universal human values has been invested, the more is also reflected in the results in technology sector and economic well-being. Ability of the interaction between individual and society is the major indicator of this development.
Universal Human Rights
The Renaissance, expeditions, big inventions and lighting philosophy as a result the late 1700's in Western Europe had been born a new way of thinking, which for the first time in the history of the world's human life value. Every individual is unique and has its mere existence, already a valuable thing. The French Revolution and the U.S. Constitution are the milestones in the history of mankind.
Although the revolutions tend to always eat their children, these things were included in the modern world to be born again and again. The historical development of ideas of the French Revolution and the ideas spread to the requirements of the 1800s all over the world. They also received new shapes and new dimensions 1800s the state philosophy in other European countries and in the European philosophical thinking (Hegel, Kant, Marx and Engels).
Decembrist Revolt 1825
Russia has had most of his time secluded from the rest of Europe. It does not have an internal or external interaction tradition way of the development of society in its portfolio. Napoleonic Wars shocked the whole of Europe. As a result, Russia's borders opened in the direction that the Russian troops marched 1815 into Paris and offenses on calming the situation in Europe.
At the same time, Russian troops marched through Europe, the military leadership and the soldiers saw what life was happy situation in Europe, where the above-described liberal ideas of the Enlightenment were widespread. A vision of deep emotional impact on people's minds: Why do your things is so deplorable condition? Although young people in Europe that were officers’ rebellion failed, it seemed the end of 1700s the large political and social upheavals’ ideas were docking in Russia.
Two Types of Liability
The late 1700's created alongside the universal human rights also began to develop a new kind of human responsibilities. Today, it is understood that humans and human society, and there are two responsibilities at the individual level and at global level, the responsibility: environmental and social responsibility in the above-cultural development.
Although both the liability arose after World War II in the world, was created for those based in the Age of Enlightenment and large political and social upheavals’ ideas of 1800 - century industrial development, the basic assumptions proved to be wrong and the penalties were borne by future generations a century later. In Russia, social responsibility was realized during the socialism experiment very well, perhaps too well. Environmental protection, while the Russians in relation to nature has been a lot of catching up to do, especially when during the Soviet Union the country simply ignored the environmental protection.
Odyssey to Central Asia
In 1814, began in Central Asia as "the great game" well-known history of the phase in which the parties were the Russian Empire and the entire Asian colonial aspiring United Kingdom. Both of them had their own interests in this matter. Russia had already established enlargement in Siberia. Russia annexed Caucasus territories from the early 1800s onwards. In 1816, Russia joined Azerbaijan and its capital Baku, which soon became the world's oil industry center. Baku existence contributed to industrialization and technological know-how in other parts of Russia.
The 1860s, Russia began a systematic program east of the Caspian Sea areas to control. Krasnovodsk established a beachhead east bank. By the year 1876 by the Russian Federation had taken control of most of the Central Asian regions except for Turkmenistan. In 1884, the Russians conquered the main cities of Turkmenistan Merv city, followed by Russia's southern border was confirmed in the UK (Persian territories) and the Russian border agreement.
Odyssey ended in 1991, when the Soviet Union collapsed and the five Central Asian former Soviet Republics became independent. Russia continues to give rise to the presence of very mixed emotions in Central Asia. Area represents a cultural tradition in which people's own opinion; they were more advanced than the Russians experienced successive waves of conquerors. Lack of dialogic mechanisms exacerbated relations between the population groups during the Tsarist and Soviet eras. As well as in Russia should be evaluated the Mongol administration time for 1230 - 1480 in a new way, but also in Central Asia, people should evaluate this time also from the perspective of what they have got themselves Russian and Soviet eras.
Odyssey to human mind
The most complex issue that Russia has never been taken, is a socialist social system, which was valid for 1917 - 1991 period. It is a unique thing in the history of the world in the industrial production of the society. The reasons and objectives for transition to socialist regime is the subject of numerous books and debated without a pint of beer and beer pints throughout the world. It is also not intended to analyze how the latter option if you would be a new opportunity to live that time again.
As with the social values, in the structure of the mind is also something constant and equitable. Socialism, equality objectives and the realization of justice are universal values that generation upon generations to fascinate people. Both Western and Russian people learned concepts of right and wrong from fairy tales and stories. Masters for Western countries and currently also in Russia on these issues are known a Danish storyteller HC Andersen and for Russian children, a writer Pavel Bazhov, who published a collection of the old Russian fairy tales, "Stories of the Ural Mountains,".
Socialism talked about things in a different way than they were in reality. Until the late 1980s, in the name of glasnost began to talk openly about things began to even admit mistakes, Vladimir Vysotsky poems began to read in a new way. In 1991 street rods filled with the last of October 1917 revolution anniversary celebrations of the people who already spoke out loud that the emperor had no clothes anymore. December 25, 1991 Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic ceased to be a "Soviet Republic" and "socialist" and 26 December 1991 the Upper Chamber of the USSR Supreme Council approved the initiative of Mikhail Gorbachev's declaration of "the abolition of the Soviet Union."
Socialism after the options
In 1991, the Soviet Union dissolved needed outside help to manage change. Now that great change is taken for reservations. Russia went through its economic shock therapy, led by foreign-funded and technical assistance programs, which were implemented in the government contribution. Russia began in 1991 privatization programme through privatizing apartments, continued from 1992 to 1994 privatizing civil industry companies by means of a coupon system. In the third stage, the social sector has been reformed by creating new private sector service capacity.
The Russians also saw themselves in the 1990s the consequences and impact of reforms on social development. Also, it was debated as an alternative for privatization to find out whether to proceed in the reform through approach like proceeded in the NEP-era with concession rights to foreign companies. NEP-years (1921 - 1929) of more than 100 foreign companies had the rights for the organization of production in different sectors of the Soviet Union. In this manner, the knowledge component was built in the country's industrialization.
Russia's civil industry rapid privatization generated also a by-result in income inequality and headed for the citizens the use of funds for consumption. It is understandable, as living standards with the West was so striking. The transition to the market economy system, the "cosmos" pen-drawn plans and knowledge of the people lost their meaning. Most of the experts in the old system worked well educated people appeared on the streets and kiosks to sell tobacco, chocolate bars, socks, and even their lives to keep the pornographic magazines. Success shock treatment did not support human rights and democracy issues related to social dialogue in society called for by the western countries in emerging new Russia.
Changes in the world economy
Russia has long been one of the major industrial countries in the world. Own path vanguard of Russia has not been able to carry out the industrial potential of Russia is on the basis of their own knowledge. Russia has become the world’s most highly trained of raw materials and energy export earnings recipient of a living economy, which is about 80 per cent of the country's total export value.
Since the Second World War, the world economy developed know-how and trade in services. Immaterial things and intellectual rights have become the main content of productive economies, representing about 70 per cent provision of the gross domestic product. Individual and business know-how, and respect for the protection of the rights are becoming as issues are of the same order of magnitude as the other fixed assets’ role in society. Without effective protection skills are no new innovations, new economic activities.
During nearly two hundred years of industrialization the carrying capacity of the environment being tested, as well as the climate that access to fresh water Bothe these things offer to Russian technological knowledge a new opportunity to be involved in creating new technological solutions to the world. The globe’s water problem-solving should be based on the large water cycle in nature of liquid, gaseous and solid state exploitation in solving environmental problems. Russia has significant technological competence in solving the problem of water in the world.
Odyssey to the future
Man can return to somewhere when he first went on somewhere, and have been there for a while before returning. To leave for the future and draw conclusions right here and right now can take place only in the mind of man. Russia and Russianness have undergone a complex catharsis process ballast of its past. It is therefore of paramount importance that both the Russian and the Russian leadership are capable of dialogue, which has been a problem throughout history.
In the future, Russia will be teaming up in their own interests and priorities differently with different countries and groups of countries. It has already taken place some kind of change in internal way of thinking in Russia. Importance of the use of force and the magnitude of the country in the future is not going to be the same significance as in the past. Critical factors in the formation of the future become knowledge-based intangible resources and cultural traditions, which future generations will draw inspiration from the building.
Elected leadership and the citizens must be considered carefully, "among whom Russia stands" in the future. In recent years, Russia has been involved in creating the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), economic co-operation. Does the foreseeable co-operation results will meet with the long-term goals and the investments made in the past the Russian national base of technological knowledge.
Or whether the idea of membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization option that should be explored and discussed within the country as one of the options for the future. Already in 1954, the Soviet Union took the initiative to join NATO. But then, in the 1950s the situation in the world was different than it is now, and in all likelihood will also be in the future.
There is no Shortage of Challenges
This script creates perhaps more questions than it provides answers to conventional questions in the minds of people about Russia and Russianness. One of the objectives for writing this paper is to provide new perspectives to the Russians and create a debate in Russia itself. In storytelling in the world, one must remember to keep in mind that the end of the story leads to the last page of the book. This also will happen to Russia and Russian culture change – it has three parts: the beginning, middle and end, which all of them are in a continuous changing process. A ready script does not exist.
© Heikki K. Auvinen, 2013
Sample Text on Public Administration Reform Areas in 2014
Premises and Content of Public Administration Reform in Finland
During the past two years, Finland has been debating on the reform of the municipality and the number of municipalities needed for effective administration. The debate has been varied and shows the unsubstantiated claims, although it is a question of core implementation process of Finnish democracy at the local level.
The Development of Public Administration,
Public management practices have evolved for thousands of years-long interaction process. When a person became farmer instead of acting as collector, a qualitative change of life took place. The result was the existence of consciousness. He became the ruler of the environment and of God he created to facilitate its own anxiety and guilt. After the religious phase, the birth of the human administrative and management processes of environment was driven by increased awareness, division of labour in community and development of technological solutions for diversification.
The core could not occur without the concept of God and the higher powers. The existence of an organized society has been preserved monuments of the past 15,000 years, long before the countries of Mesopotamia and the Nile river valley civilizations. An important factor in the development of the public to form a communal consciousness that is structured and materializes through the consciousness of individuals. Collective consciousness is the other end of the continuity of life of the planet and the other end is the finite consciousness of life of the individual.
Individual, when consciously aware of his limitations at the same time he recognizes the purpose of the continuation of life. Individuals are aware of, and undertake to take into account the meaning of life for the realization of the different cooperation processes and alliances. This is called public management or public administration. In totalitarian system, things run centrally from top to bottom, and the dialogue based system based again in both directions.
Shift in Focus of Operations
The reality includes the past, present and future, east, west, north, and south, as well as the atmosphere of our planet and the crust under the layers of the earth's core inhabited by the people. The coordination of interests and ensure the continuity of life must take place in a mutually satisfactory way.
From the above perspective, the public administration has continued the common and individual interests of the coordination of multi-dimensional linear and physically measurable reality. As time passed, the content of public administration has moved from the past based reality to the actions and beliefs taking into account at the present, the effects of taking account of the life to come.
Traditional Public Administration Tasks
Since 1800s the political systems materialising the Hegelian state philosophy as democracy ideal, the public authorities have been perform the following tasks:
- Public law and order
- Support to family as core social institution
- Regulation of ownership and inheritance
- Regulation of the contract law matters
- Crime prevention and control
- Regulation of civil law matters
- Civil rights and obligations
- External relations and defence matters
In addition to these tasks above, in late 1800's/early 1900s a new kind of public economic and social policy thinking resulted in formation of two major tasks for the public, as they are still also carried out today: capacity-building and infrastructure development for economic and entrepreneurial activities, and on the other hand creation of income transfer mechanisms e.g. taxation for the wealth and income differences resulting in the economy.
The Current Tasks of Public Authority
The two world wars increased international interaction (the League of Nations and the United Nations), as well as increased international trade and changes in the economies of production structures have also changed tasks of public authority at the national level. Basically, the old tasks are still in force. Their contents have become more specific, and new tasks are created as follows:
- Civil rights and equality in policy-level
- Civil rights and equality in facilities
· day care/pre-school education
· universal primary education
· secondary and other levels of education
· health care services
· social security and pensions
- Environmental issues/construction supervision
- Land use planning and control
- Agriculture and forestry infrastructure
- Transport and communications infrastructure
- The public sector operational processes
- Information/ICT architecture
- Privacy, integrity and data security
- Support to Innovation and research
- Functionality and quality standards creation
- Support to entrepreneurship and export operations
- Supervision of banking and finance sector
- Identification of threats and situation analyses
- Obligations resulting International treaties
- Image and credibility around the world
- Development cooperation and aid
Means of Public Management
As described above, to fulfil the duties of public administration there are available a variety of ways, which can be grouped for different reasons. When you move from the existing ministries and government departments at a level above, will end up in four or five really basic operating process whereby all sectors can be viewed as similar operational processes.
1) The Development of Legislation
The main task of the public management, especially in governance, is development of legislation (existing maintenance and modification of existing one, as well as new legislation). In central government, which involves both legislative bodies (the parliament and its committees), and the implementing agencies (the Ministry of Justice and sector ministries). Finland's current constitution regulating the institutional division of labour was entered into force on 01.03.2000.
Local MPs and their support structures have the right of initiative for the local level necessary legislative changes to achieve in the current system. Legislative acts and preparation processes for local regulation and development is solely a matter of the Finnish central government, though municipal self-government and local administrations in the area (regional governments) has rights to Land Use Planning and Monetary Affairs initiative at this time in Finland.
2) Sector Business Processes
In addition to legislative processes, the public administration comprises the sector-specific business processes, i.e. running the actual administration of the branch-specific activities and the substantive goal setting, choice of means to achieve the objectives and to rake care of its design activities and effectiveness.
Business process management in the current public administration is subject to the same management practices and principles as the private sector for similar activities. Performance management is here to stay between the different government sectors to work out clear objectives, the attainment of which is also measurable.
3) Human Resources and Skills Resources
Today, the management of human resources sector, made up of civil servants, officials working on a contract basis and elected/appointed employees, and now also a variety of trainees, which are accompanied by conditions associated with either branch of government on their in-house and exchange programs and cooperation programmes with various educational institutions and sectorial cooperation bodies.
As a precondition for attracting qualified personnel to the public service requires that the salaries and other benefits are competitive with the private sector and academic careers. Also the skills of its staff and the principle of continuous education are among the issues that sector administrations should be able to handle.
4) Functions of Assessment and Feedback Mechanisms
Finnish Administrative Procedure Act (434/2003) is a Finnish law, a law aimed at accomplishing and to promote good governance and the rule of law in administrative matters, as well as to promote the management of service quality and effectiveness. It applies to both state and municipal authorities as well as private actors, to take care of public administration.
The requirement for operations evaluation is based on the EU's contribution came good governance criteria, which the Finnish administration in assessing the compliance with EU principles of good governance and standards. Principles of good administration and operations performance assessment differ from each other if there is a question, the EU and Finland's affairs, government affairs and local government issues Finland. EU's self-evaluation tools and standards are also suitable for the Finnish public administration assessment.
The fifth basic function of public administration can be considered the design, implementation and monitoring & evaluation of public administration’s business processes i.e. eGovernment development. Common ICT architecture and compatibility of the State and local government information systems is one of the greatest challenges of the Finnish public administration.
Division of Labour between Levels of Government
Finnish constitution is based on division of power into three. Since Finland joined the European Community in 1995 big changes took place in public management at various levels of government, in particular on issues related to regional governments. In addition to the provincial administration restructuring in 1997, the regional agencies were established in Finland, which currently has 18 units + autonomous region of Åland, the functions of which consist of regional development and regional land use planning in cooperation with EU institutions and the Finnish Government (Ministry of Environment).
The Republic of Finland, headed by the President elected through a direct popular vote for six years. Headed by the Prime Minister, the Government used together with the President of the Board of Directors the power of government is responsible for the implementation. The State Board consists of fifteen ministers from various ministries and the Chancellor of Justice.
In addition to the central government in Finland as part of the public administration operates regional state administration, which consists of six provincial State Administrative Agency and the autonomous Åland Islands. Regional State Administration units also operate in State administration, regional administrations and local governments.
In fact, the administrative units in lower-level base, which will take place the number of constant tension. Local government decision to use the city council, chosen from the local elections held every four years. The local council's key role is to decide on municipal revenue and expenditure of the municipal government of preparations.
Functionality of Division of Labour
Finland last couple of years the debate on local government reform, says that the administration is not functioning properly. Remedies suggested are the radical reduction in the number of municipal and regional councils and creation of larger local government units. The matter has become subject of political game lacking any good administrative practice relating to the debate.
The preparation of matters have not been made through a proper analysis of the current state of the overall management of obligations of the EU's membership within to the entire public sector division of labour, nor there is an analysis or identification of new tasks and challenges that are emerging in the world specifically at local government level.
Local governments have two core functions: fields of public administration as a sovereign actor that fills a whole of the tasks which the central government and regional governments are not able to perform and produce in the municipality of resident natural and legal persons in a variety of services related to the public sector competence and support on a local level.
If and when a government program will push forward such a thing as a key government reform, the preparation has to be open and transparent. After all, the whole issue of the Finnish basic democratic issues. Another issue that relates to municipal reform is the preparation and implementation of its integration into the whole public administration reform. One level cannot be renewed without affecting the other levels. Common sense is not prohibited from using.
The New Functions of Local Government
The new functions are listed above, as well as the old Hegelian state that today's state of public administration tasks. If the tasks of municipalities and regional governments are related to the size of the Finnish context, it can be easily seen in a number of different options to restructure the role of public sector and division of labour at the entire national scale.
Tasks can be divided into the legislative process and the executive affairs in preparation. We live in a time of great changes, as well as in terms of environmental and emergence of knowledge society. In both cases with respect to the traditional centre-led model will not work because of problems with both national and local levels.
Finnish society management operations must be extended to all corners of the country. If Finland in remote areas does not have the Finnish government, there is easy access to someone else. Every country has a history with which must learn to live. The effectiveness of short-sighted thinking is irrelevant, provided it is not carried higher-level goals.
Environmental protection, clean water availability, the availability of electrical energy, carbon sinks at the time of receipt, maintenance and operation of the infrastructure of the information society and combating threats will be new tasks that a new type of local authority could be secured. The existing municipal infrastructure should not be run down, but the administrations should develop a point of the modern requirements of a new perspective.
National Defence should also be seen in a new way. In addition to traditional military service there is a need to establish a new type of “community service” to contribute functionality of the living infrastructure at local level. Things cannot be treated in Helsinki and Brussels. How? It is necessary to study on the target, analysing and determining the administrations of various levels of objectives, activities and relationships.
Other Potential Changes in Administration
Since 1906, Finland has had a unicameral parliament. Today, the Finnish political system structure and functionality should be assessed in new way. Finland's internal structure and the development of EU membership set new requirements for the Finnish parliamentary system. Finland is not the federal government system. The country has 18 regions + 1 autonomous area for the preparation of matters at the national level, may not be the most efficient set-up.
Could it be a bicameral Parliament of Finland. The newly structured 200-seat parliament consisted of the first chamber with 182 national level representatives and 38 more regionally/locally oriented representatives. The electoral system would be similar to the current practice. The second chamber of representatives to be appointed to Regional Councils, on behalf of the candidate lists. It would highlight the second chamber of representatives of the regional and the new focus on regional and local government affairs.
Overall administrative reform, which would include all three levels comprising of functional analysis as well as the division of labour issues and business processes, as well as the breakdown of connections to existing administrative/computer systems analysis, implementation of the decision-making on the management of the public sector in Finland.
Other Comments and Observations
From the Congress of Vienna 1814 - 1815 the foundation was laid for the current nation-states above in States cooperation. These international bodies and organizations are funded by the national governments. International organizations give rise to obligations and operational requirements of a sovereign state. State law in use of the international context serves as a secondary law only.
There are missing features and functions amongst tasks that are taken care of the business sector and civil society in Finland. An association is the basis of democracy in Finland and one of the key political decision-making channels and tools of political influence. During this day the tradition continues and the majority of the elected decision-makers are the ex-activists of the past non-governmental organizations.
The media is emerging as a competitor to the NGOs and their activists have achieved. Visibility in broadcasting networks is governed by the pre-election restrictions in public appearance in mass media. Those who use social media in their participation in political activities should also disclose the integrity issues and focus on regulation needs of free social with an international agreement and national legislation.
The fourth issue that needs attention in Finland is the role of public social media data-transmission. The United States has been raised on a number of actions with use of metadata related to Internet and use of social media with regard to privacy and data integrity. As long as there is no prejudice case settled in the US court, the Finnish public sector should be very selective in disclosing and using Internet for communication and information tool.
Sample Text on ICT/Internet Society in 2004
Is privacy more important than entrepreneurship on the Information Highway?
Operations that are incompatible with good commercial practice and which have gained a hold in the Internet have nothing in common with the purposes for which the Internet was originally created. Can the Internet be cleaned up using administrative means? Would an international declaration help?
Despite firewalls and filters, every day we are forced to receive undesirable messages. The Internet Society, which operates in more than 180 countries, and which bases its activities on openness and communality, is also conscious of the problem. Communality also demands that problems that arise be taken care of inside the community itself.
Openness in itself is a value
As the amount of spam has increased, the principle of openness has lost ground. In its place, closed networks have appeared. Companies’ websites are ’closed’. Anyone wishing to make contact must first of all demonstrate that they are ‘worthy to communicate’ with the company.
Openness and free exchange can also be ensured by technical means. Already in the 1990s, it was noted in connection with hackers and data burglary that the primary approach to the problem could not be an arms race with the troublemakers. The alternative is administrative means.
An outline of approaches
Trade and communications are activities that are both regulated by their own special legislation. The ease of use and non-existent costs of e-mail create an illusion of an opportunity for rapid enrichment with the aid of sales operations extending abroad. There is no exact information of the total amount of this kind of trade. If such information existed, it could by itself dampen the enthusiasm of new entrepreneurs to enter the sector.
A solution to the problem could be the regulation of operations, based on the following principles:
1) The inviolability of the dialogic principle
When someone who is conscious of the environment moves in nature without leaving a trace, they are in a dialogic relationship with nature. People who spread litter and damage nature do not have such a relationship. In the Internet, a contact is dialogic when both parties desire it. A data connection is based on a telecommunications connection, so that the secrecy of telephone and telecommunications can be applied to it. A third party cannot participate in an Internet connection between two others.
2) The contents of human rights must be extended
Everyone has their own inviolable territory. In the case of people walking along a street past shops, this principle of physical inviolability works. In the case of electronic communications, on the other hand, it is now possible to offend people and impute various shortcomings to them. Human rights must be extended to protect the intangible self as well. It must be possible to apply the norms of libel that apply to the press and electronic communications to Internet operations too.
3) Additional legal responsibility for the sender
Legislation governing the freedom of the press emphasizes responsibility for the correctness and integrity of published information. Media must have editors who are also responsible for their content. The Internet network is also a medium and can be regulated in the same way. A spammer who sends mail to innumerable addresses can be identified in the Internet. It is publication comparable to free newspapers, in which the sender often commits solicitation and misdemeanours.
4) Extraterritorial application of the law must be promoted
The ETYK conference held in Helsinki in 1975 was a significant step forward in the regulation of human rights and the press. International trade treaties give way to the extraterritorial application of the law, in which a commitment is made to common legal norms and to the right to institute criminal proceedings over frontiers. Thus, if certain goods are subject to licence in the receiving country, they are also so when offered for sale from outside that country. In Internet commerce, it must be possible to prosecute, in both the sender and recipient countries, those in breach of permit procedures.
5) Officials to issue user identifiers
Internet service providers are both commercial enterprises and the supervisors of network operations. The fact that a seller hides behind an assumed name does not remove their responsibility for their goods and deliveries. When the Internet becomes filled with information on vague goods and even more vague suppliers, questions arise as to the functioning of the supervision. The transfer to public officials of the issuing of user identifiers (communications passports) should therefore be considered, in order to ensure better data protection for real users.
An international Internet declaration
International treaties and national laws separately regulate parts of Internet operations, but there is no intergovernmental treaty on the totality. On the basis of the principles of the Internet community, it would be possible to make a general international ‘Code of Conduct’ declaration concerning the use of the Internet. Its signatories could be international organizations, governments, corporations, and associations, as well as individual users. A widely based declaration would give a new point of departure for the regulation of activities. It would also give individual users a categorical imperative for themselves!
© Heikki K. Auvinen, 2004